Second Great Wave

What were the reasons for this
culture leaving their country?

For what were they hoping?

Chinese Culture

Anthony C.
Sally L.
Derek H.
Sarah N.
Jacqueline L.
Joanna Y.
Robyn M.
Amanda L.

There were two main reasons why Chinese men left China from 1870 - 1900. One reason the Chinese left was because Empress Dowager CIXI ran China in a corrupt way which caused it to become a weak economy. They left because they wanted to find better paying jobs in order to support their families. Chinese men were forced to work building the C.P.R. (Canadian Pacific Railroad). They made $.75 to $1.00 a day but this was more then they made in China. These were the main reasons why the Chinese left China. In China people didn’t have much, so when they heard about Canada they were sure that they would get the things they hoped for. One of the opportunities they hoped for was a better paying job. They also hoped for better weather, no typhoons, earthquakes or floods. China had just recently experienced some bad luck with their weather. It turns out that Canada did have many of the things that they had hoped for, but not all.

French Culture

Jon M.
Jason L.

The French came to Canada from 1870-1900 for many reasons. In 1870-1871, France was at war with Prussia. Prussia took over Alsace-Lorraine from France. Some French people living hear didn’t want to be German. The Prussians made the French pay 500 million Francs to pay because they lost the war. Also some people died of starvation, because there wasn’t enough food for everyone. The Canadian government recruited French farmers to farm the golden grasses of the plains. To interest them, free land was offered. The French really didn't have much choice but to leave France. One of the most terrifying experiences is war. In Canada the French hoped to find peace. They hoped for a good life farming the fertile land instead of land destroyed by the battles. If they were successful then there would be enough food to feed their families. The final hope was to be free to be French and not forced to become Prussian. Hope for peace was a success for the French immigrants.

Ukrainian Culture

Kevan H.

The Ukrainians left Europe between 1870-1900 because of the language they were forced to speak. The Ukrainians were expected by Russian Czars to speak the Russian language. Actually I thought that was terrible. No books were in Ukrainian language at that time. Two strong governments could mean one government controlled the other. That was the case for Russia and Ukraine. Of course Russia, because of its size was more powerful. The people who left the Ukraine left, in order to find more freedom and a better life. The things they hoped for in Canada were much more positive then what they left in the Ukraine. The Canadian government offered free land and the Ukrainians hoped to get some of it. Ukrainians thought if there was free land they would have more money when they got to Canada in order to buy supplies. That could be a key factor in their survival. They also hoped to practice their own beliefs and speak their own language.

Icelandic Culture

Jennifer M.

In 1880, a volcano erupted in Iceland! One reason why Icelanders left Canada was because when the volcano erupted, it destroyed farms, homes and villages. Since the volcano erupted on farms, the Icelanders did not have enough food to survive. I think another reason why the Icelanders left was, they wanted new jobs because most jobs were farming or fishing, so they wanted something different. In the end some Icelanders became Canadians. When the Icelanders moved, they thought about what they hoped for. Most of the Icelanders wanted Canada to not be volcanic so the people could live without fear. They also hoped for free land, as the government of Canada promised. I think that some immigrants hoped for different jobs. Most Icelanders got what they hoped for.

American (Mormons)

Tanner L.

The American Mormons came to Canada for many reasons. American Mormons left the United States because there were lots of land opportunities in Canada. Another reason was religious freedom because there was some persecution happening in the United States because of certain church practices. They may have come to help establish and build Southern Alberta irrigation canals. They also might have come because other families had already moved up here and they followed. Americans came to Canada for many reasons and it was very successful for both groups. American Mormons had lots of troubles in the United States. Mormons in Utah hoped for free religion so they could practice their church beliefs without persecution. Some Americans lived in extreme poverty so they hoped for free land opportunities. They moved to Canada so they could get more money and be prosperous. They hoped for a nice place to live close to their family. American Mormons hoped for many things because Canada has lots of things that the United States didn’t.

Scottish Culture

William C.

Scots came to Canada because Scotland didn’t have some of the things Canada had. Scotland had lots of crowding and there was barely any farmland left. Another reason was that Canada was calling upon British subjects to give them good quality land for free because Scotland had “tough farmers”. These are some of the important reasons the Scots came to Canada. When the Scots come to Canada they hoped for a few things. One was the good quality housing that Canada promised them. They also hoped for some of the free education that was being offered. These were the main things that the Scots hoped for.

German Culture

David B.

There were a lot of reasons why the Germans left Europe from 1870-1900. One reason Germans left Europe was wars. Wars and revolutions destroyed their homes and food. Their way of life wasn’t very good anymore. Some Germans were forced to fight in wars. Another reason was not enough land. The good farmland was already taken. A third reason was they couldn’t worship God in their own way, or, they belonged to a minority group that was denied rights given to others. As a result, Germans came in large numbers, and next to the British and Irish, was the largest immigrant group in the 1900 century. The Germans had a lot of hopes when they came to Canada. They wanted freedom and peace. They didn’t want to be forced to fight in anymore wars. There wasn't enough land to farm in Germany. Farmers often had to till the land for large state owners. People who left to come to Canada hoped for good free farmland. Another hope the German people had was better paying jobs. Despite
Germany’s growing industrialization, there was great poverty in the city. Germans with a Jewish background and Mennonites were two groups who hoped for freedom of religion in Canada. Overall, Germans who came to Canada hoped to be treated with respect.


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What did they find in Canada?

What did they face?

(Cooperation, Competition, or Conflict)

Chinese Culture

The Chinese found many opportunities in Canada but not all were good. The jobs with the C.P.R. were harsh and difficult and many Chinese died from the dangerous and tough conditions. They found that they weren’t wanted in Canada. They weren’t allowed to become citizens. The government discouraged immigration by charging a head tax before they were allowed into Canada. The Chinese tried to make good out of bad circumstances but could now always accomplish this. The Chinese had to face a lot of difficult times. They faced a lot of conflict and competition. There was a lot of competition for jobs because the Chinese were willing to take less money and work for longer hours. This caused the white people to turn against the Chinese. The children were beaten up and separated from the white children because the British born adults thought that it was wrong to mix the two cultures. This resulted in a big conflict between two groups of people.

French Culture

Canada was very British which meant it had many things that France didn’t. Canada was a young country, just developing democracy with British rules and government as it had just become a country in 1867. The French were very much a part of Quebec but most of the land was already taken, so they moved to the Northwest Territories where the N.W.M.P. were keeping law and order. They were given free land in the prairie provinces of Canada. They founded small French communities where they could continue to keep their culture. In the late 1800’s school was free and it was not mandatory. Most schools had only one room which contained all the grades. The community helped to build the schools and they became the centre of the community. Could you move into a culture so different? The French experienced both conflict and cooperation. The Canadian constitution, signed by Queen Victoria, let the French speak their language when they came to Canada. Even though the country was bilingual, most of the teachers were English. Non-English speaking immigrants who came by themselves had a very lonely journey. Women who came alone couldn’t own property or vote (or be in the government). Louis Riel, a Metis icon, got into conflict with the government when he tried to help the Metis people keep their land in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. These descendants of French fur traders had lived on these lands for hundreds of years but didn’t have paper ownership. The government gave their land to the new British immigrants. Louis Riel ended up getting executed for treason.

Ukrainian Culture

The boat ride, train ride, and walk to their own land claim was very stressful. When the Ukrainians first got here they saw many things, some good and some not so good. If they were lucky they would have a river beside their land stake. The Ukrainian immigrants also saw acres of empty land with dirt and grass. They could have seen Metis and Indian tribes. If they broke the rules they were found by the North West Mounted Police. When they got here the immigrants were engulfed in many things. The Ukrainians created a lot of co-operation with each other. The Ukrainian’s work habits were amazing . They came in large groups of people and they all worked together. The people that came went to their land claims and one by one built sod houses. Everybody participated in group activities. The Ukrainians were kind of like the good guys, did good things not bad. The Ukrainians also met some conflict. The Canadian government only had them situated in the middle of the preferred immigrant list. Later, when the government actually realized how hard Ukrainians worked, they encouraged more to come over.

Icelandic Culture

Icelanders went to Canada to find new discoveries. They found that in the bigger cities of Canada, there was actually crime in the streets, so they couldn’t leave their younger children outside alone. They found that most jobs were the same as in Iceland. Most Icelandic immigrants settled in a farm area near Winnipeg. The Icelanders were free to keep their religions. They found that Canada had a little different climate. It was more extreme in both summer and winter. Temperatures were not moderated by the ocean as in Iceland. Icelandic immigrants had to learn to cope with all the things they found in Canada. The Icelanders faced quite a bit of co-operation. The Icelanders may have been driven out of their homeland, but when they arrived , they quickly adapted to Canadian ways. Most Icelanders worked together to build buildings like schools or homes. Many of the Icelanders were kind, but at night some drunken people got into fights. They may have faced alot, but the Icelanders kept their courage high.


American Mormons didn’t only find what they needed, they found lots of other things too. The NWMP were the police at the time. They were concerned about the settlers such as the Mormons. The CPR was completed in 1885. The Mormons found dry grasslands in Alberta but they had the knowledge of how to irrigate the land because Utah is like a desert. That made them prosperous farmers. The Mormons found that you could own a quarter section of the land if you were 21 or older or the head of the family, but you had to live on the land for 3 years, for 6 months of the year, build a house on the land, and make other improvements( Like ploughing the ground). In schools they taught the children to read, write, some of the basic stuff, and to be loyal to the British Empire. The Mormons settled in Cardston. (Which was named after Charles Ora Card who was sent up here by Brigham Young.) American Mormons found what they needed plus more. American Mormons faced many things and here are some of them. When the American Mormons came to Alberta they settled in Cardston, a city in Alberta. They worked together to build farms, a cheese factory, sawmills, gristmills, and a temple. This showed cooperation. In the summer they faced 35 degree Celsius heat. They worried about drought, fire, and fast-moving grass fires. In the winter they had to endure -40 degree Celsius cold and wild blizzards. American Mormons faced many hardships but it was worth it.

Scottish Culture

When the Scots came to Canada they found some unexpected things. The main one was the harsh climate like the super dry weather which makes it harder to grow crops. The winters were also very harsh in Canada. The Scots found that Canada had better and higher paying jobs. The train ride to the prairie provinces was especially hard because at least 30 families were put into one train car! These are three of the things the Scots found in Canada when they arrived. When the Scots arrived in Canada they faced two things, one was cooperation and the other was competition. An example for cooperation is that Canada was giving Scots free land. Another for cooperation is that the Canadians and Scots worked together to build school houses and communities. An example of competition was how the land was given out. A person of British or Scottish decent was given better land along creeks, rivers and railroads. That was two things Scots faced when settling in Canada.

German Culture

There were a few things Germans found in Canada. Canada had a British style of government. In 1867 it
became a country, one in which a railroad was built and it went all across Canada. The railroad provided some jobs and it was easier to get to their new homes in the prairies. The railroad also moved the crops they grew to other places in Canada to be sold. The Germans also found new, free land to farm. The farming was not easy. First they had to plow fields that had never been plowed before. They built sod houses that were dug from the ground. They piled up the dirt to make bricks. When it rained, the houses usually leaked for a week. These were just a few things that Germans found in Canada.
The Germans mostly found cooperation in Canada. The hardest part of a pioneer’s life in the prairies was loneliness. The Germans would work together to help each other farm and have company(someone to talk to). In communities such as Kitchener, Ontario (Formerly Berlin, Ontario) new German immigrants were welcomed. Gradually as German immigrants felt more secure in their new country they joined other workers and turned to the trade union movement to get fair wages and better working conditions. The Germans cooperated with the Canadian government in order to become good Canadian citizens.


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How has this culture
changed Canada?

How has Canada
changed this culture?

Chinese Culture

Canada has been changed by the introduction of the Chinese culture. The face of Canadian communities has changed by the building of China towns in some cities like Calgary and Vancouver. Chinese food restaurants have become a part of many towns and cities. The English were exposed to Chinese food such as do, si,. seafood. Cantonese style food and different kinds of teas. Something else that was introduced was the Chinese horoscope. When the Canadians found out about the animals and what the symbols meant, they began to use the horoscope and listen to what it said. The Chinese brought celebrations and culture that Canada never had and so as a result, Canada has become a better country. In the early 1900’s changes also occurred to the Chinese culture when the two cultures met. Some learned to speak English so they could communicate better with others. When the Chinese arrived they had to follow the English rules which were different from the rules in China. The Chinese have started to celebrate Canada Day, and Christmas, two holidays which weren’t celebrated in China. Canada helped the Chinese to learn/change their culture as a result of their experiences in Canada. Over time, the Chinese learn to adapt to their new life in Canada.

French Culture

The French who came to Canada have changed Canada in many positive ways. The most important contribution to Canada is language, as Canada officially became a bilingual country in 1867. Today many Canadians learn French because it’s our second official language. Inventor Joseph R. Bombardier made the first snowmobile; singer Celine Dion and many famous hockey players have changed Canada. Hockey, comes from the French word “hoquet” meaning shepherd’s crook. The sticks used in hockey were curved like the stick a shepherd used to move sheep. Another sport the French introduced was tennis. Wow, have the French ever made a huge positive contribution to Canada. Money, money, money! Ka-ching, ka-ching, ka-ching! The French speaking immigrants were more successful in business if they chose to learn the English language and culture. Many head offices were found in Montreal but when Quebec changed some laws (regarding language use) they moved out. Some Quebecois feel too much of their culture has been changed by the English culture. Quebec has to make a choice whether to be a part of Canada. They are still making that choice. We hope that they remain part of this good country... CANADA.

Ukrainian Culture

The Ukrainians didn’t bring a lot of things to Canada, but they brought a few traditions. The Christians brought Easter and practically all Ukrainians are Christian. Ukrainians brought over the Pysanky (Ukrainian Easter eggs). Pysanky are decorated with designs like crosses, symbols, and even the Treazeu (coat of arms). Some have symbols of peace and prosperity. Canada is a more colourful country after Ukrainians have been here. Ukrainian people have brought traditions and celebrations to Canada. Canada changed the Ukrainian people in ways. One example was that living in Canada brought the Ukrainian people closer together as a culture. However, Ukrainians were expected to learn English. When the Ukrainian children went to school they could only speak English. This was a strategy used by the Canadian government to help Ukrainians become “ Canadian ”. I would say that Ukrainians became successful Canadians who have adopted this country as their own.

Icelandic Culture

Not many Icelanders immigrated to Canada so Icelanders changed Canada in some ways. When Icelanders came to Canada, they used Icelandic names in places in Nova Scotia, and also Gimli, Manitoba. They also brought new celebrations to Canada like “Islendingadagurion”, which is celebrated in the first week of August in Gimli. They brought a hardworking, courageous people and culture to add to Canada’s multicultural mix. The Icelanders were changed quite a bit. The Icelanders mainly had to learn how to speak English,but they could still speak Icelandic to friends and family. They had to learn new skills in order to get jobs and to make money. They also wanted enough food for their families. Overall they had a better life in Canada because they had no fears of volcanoes.


The American Mormons changed quite a few things in Canada. If the Mormons hadn’t come, Cardston wouldn't have been built. It was named after Charles Ora Card. Southern Alberta (around Lethbridge) wouldn’t be such a successful industry if the Mormons hadn’t come to Canada. They came with their knowledge about irrigating the land because Utah is like a desert. The Mormons built the temple in Cardston and architects think that it might be the most beautiful building in Canada because it is so architecturally correct. It was designed in the style of Frank Lloyd Wright. The American Mormons changed Canada quite a lot but I only gave some examples. The American Mormons didn’t really get changed a lot by Canada but here are a few examples. Canada changed the American Mormons because they had to get used to the colder climate. The American Mormons were changed because of Canada’s socialistic government. Canada also changed the American Mormons by getting them to promise that they’d only have one wife if they came into Canada. Canada didn’t really change the American Mormons very much at all.

Scottish Culture

When Scottish immigrants came to Canada they brought many things. One tradition was eating haggis on Robbie Burns Day. They also brought bagpipes that were used in military ceremonies. The Scots brought some sports to Canada too, like curling and golf [Scotland had the first ever golf course]. These were some of the traditions and sports the Scots brought to Canada that changed the way Canadians live. The Scottish culture has changed since coming to Canada in many ways. One is that Scots can only wear their kilts on special occasions. Another reason is that the Scots had to learn Canadian celebrations like Christmas and Hallowe’en. These are some of the ways the Scots have changed after moving to Canada.

German Culture

The German culture changed Canada in many ways. A huge contribution was made in the area of Music, Poetry and Art. Many of the most famous Classical musicians such as Bach, Mozart and Beethoven were German. Poets like Goethe, Rilke or Schlegel have influenced Canadian Poets. These are examples of how Germans changed Canadian Arts. Canada has also changed the German culture. Germans came to a British Canada and learned to speak English. Many Germans became successful business men in Canada. They are a hard working people. Germans also changed Berlin Ont. to Kitchener Ont. in order to keep peace after W.W.I and W.W.II.


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