Early Settlers


What were the reasons for this
culture leaving their country?

For what were they hoping?

British Culture

John D.
Cassey M.

In the 1700’s, the life for the average British citizen was challenging because they were losing jobs, homes, and experiencing poverty as a result of the Industrial Revolution. These conditions convinced the British to immigrate to Canada. Another reason was the continuous conflict between the English, Scots and the irish. The English wanted to control the Scots and this threatened their heritage. Traditions such as languages (Gaelic), religion, clothing and music were being abolished so the Scots left. In England, people were leaving, as well, because of two deadly diseases: smallpox and measles which killed many people. The British came to Canada hoping for many things. For example, they hoped to become landowners or at least a stable occupation. They hoped for a conflict free-life. The Scots wished to practice their traditions without being persecuted. For the English, Canada was appealing because it was already a British Colony and it had already followed many of their traditions and customs. Ultimately the British immigrants were hoping for a better life in Canada.

Loyalists

Jenny L
Ryan B.

The Loyalists left the United States from 1775-1783 because of the American Revolution and the fact they wanted to stay loyal o Britain. Some Loyalists wanted to remain connected to Britain because many depended on the British crown for their status such as property, goods and livelihood. They were disrespected because they were citizens of Britain and were tortured because of their religion and beliefs. Some were even shipped away. These people were driven out of one country into another because of their loyalty to Britain. The Loyalists expected something from the new country that was different from what they had in American. They expected to continue contract with Britain and to be treated with respect. They hoped to keep the British way of life and practice their religion in their own way. Another important hope was for peace. These were some of the expectations the Loyalists had when they came to Upper and Lower Canada.

African Culture

Sarah G.
Derek C.
Zakiya K.
Anthea M.
Marija J.
Joanne T.
Kristyn S.
Stephanie W.
Chris C.
JordanW.
Tyler A.
Tamara O.
Benjamin C.

The Black’s main reasons for leaving the U.S. was because of slavery and racism. During the 19th century, Afro-Americans were not considered citizens of the United States of America. Blacks were treated more like animals than human beings. They weren’t able to practice their religious beliefs. Slaves were sold at auctions, punished with whips if they disobeyed their masters and the U.S. government wouldn’t recognize their marriages. Some escaped to countries such as Canada through the Underground Railroad following the North Star. Between 1840 - 1860 over 30,000 black slaves escaped slavery and came to Canada. Every black immigrant hoped for a better life but everyone had their own vision of what a better life would be. Black slaves hoped for freedom, rights, the ability to practice religion and to be able to live independently. Another thing they hoped for was land, in order to raise their family, and a good education for their children. As a result of becoming a citizen of Canada, black immigrants hoped for freedom, rights and to have an independent life like every other person in Canada.

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What did they find in Canada?

What did they face?

(Cooperation, Competition, or Conflict)

British Culture

Upon arriving in Canada, British immigrants found many resources and new cultures such as the aboriginal people and the French. Some of the resources were fish, furs, lumber and ranges of farmland. These resources gave the immigrants jobs that led to a better life. Depending on the nationality, the immigrants may have found people from their same country that had already settled in Canada. The journey to Canada was difficult. Ship passengers faced disease and starvation. Competition and even conflict, occurred between cultures over control of the best farm land and hunting grounds. The climate of Canada was quite different than the climate of Britain and proved to be very challenging.

Loyalists

The Loyalists had a hard life in Canada. At this time, the Loyalists were one of the few settlements in Canada. At the beginning, they had to survive with only pork, flour, butter, farming tools and tents. Emergency supplies were delayed. Harsh climate killed crops and some Loyalists too. Food was scarce. They found that they had to trust each other in order to survive. Many didn’t survive the first winter. The Loyalists cooperated with each other by helping build log houses and raising crops. Because of the Loyalist’s hard work, determination and cooperation, they managed to build a colony.
The Loyalists competed with each other for land. The British government frequently didn’t give the land which they had promised land. They felt betrayed. Even though the British didn’t fulfill their promises, the Loyalists were successful in starting a new life.

African Culture

Although slavery was banned in Canada, there were still many racist people living here. Some people treated the blacks unfairly because of their skin colour. There was segregation. Two examples of this were that they had to go to separate schools and separate churches. Sometimes they lived in separate communities such as Africville, Ontario and Orangeville, Ontario. Blacks were given free farm land but it was rocky and unfarmable. The Blacks found that even though they were free, racism was still a big issue for a long time. Afro Americans faced many challenges in Canada. Not only did they fear being caught as they made their escape from the U.S., they had to face discrimination and racial prejudice an fight for equal rights, once they got to Canada. The government of N.S. didn’t want the blacks to come to N.S. because they were afraid too many were coming ad competing with the whites for jobs. Some cooperation emerged as well. The blacks who came first helped new black immigrants to settle in. They had to work hard to get where they are today.

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How has this culture
changed Canada?

How has Canada
changed this culture?

British Culture

People from Britain have contributed many things to the Canadian Culture. From an entertainment and sports point of view they brought new dances, music, food, stories, sports and games. In terms of new technology, the British immigrants brought over the circular saw, threshing machines, steam engine and units of measurement. The Government of Canada today is based upon the British government system. The same can be said for our school systems. As one can see the British have contributed a lot to Canada. Over time, the British immigrants changed in some ways. By learning to survive on their own in a new land and harsher climates, these cultures slowly became less dependent on their own countries and started to develop a Canadian identity. In addition they learned how to live together with different cultures.

Loyalists

The British/Loyalists have changed Canada by bringing many things. Sports such as soccer (football), baseball and shove-a-penny were introduced. Inventions they brought with them included the circular saw, the threshing machine, the steam engine and the imperial measurement system. The English language has become the main language in Canada. “God Save the King” and “The Congress” were two of the songs Canada adopted. Some British foods eaten in Canada include trifle, Christmas pudding and fish and chips. With all this Britain has changed Canada a lot. After the Loyalists stayed in Canada for awhile they began to change to the Canadian way life. Some started to become less dependent on Britain for their food and they learned to become farmers, fishermen and other occupations. in order to survive, the Loyalists, made the necessary changes their lifestyle.

African Culture

Blacks have taught us a better understanding of different cultures and how to treat them. Laws have eventually evolved giving people more equal rights. Other contributions include music like blues, jazz, rap, gospel and dances such as congo and the jitterbug. SPORTS! Blacks give sports and “essence” because of their ability in sports. Other contributions in the area of religion and food also flavour Canada’s population. Canadians have become more tolerant of others with the help of blacks. If you think about it, Canadians have also influenced African Americans over the years. Canada gave the Blacks a chance to start a new free life. Education helped blacks to speak better English and get better jobs. The Black culture embraced choice of religion and different sports. It is impossible to avoid changing when meeting a new culture.

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